The Rise of Ordinals Inscriptions: NFTs on Bitcoin and the Impact on Transaction Fees

25 December 2023

How the popularity of Ordinals inscriptions is driving up Bitcoin transaction fees and causing network congestion

In recent weeks, the world of cryptocurrency has been buzzing with the phenomenon of Ordinals inscriptions, also known as “NFTs on Bitcoin.” These unique digital assets have captured the attention of fans, miners seeking higher fees, and blockchain purists. Initially gaining traction earlier this year, Ordinals inscriptions have experienced a resurgence, driving up Bitcoin transaction fees to unprecedented levels. The trend has even spread to other blockchains, causing congestion and raising concerns among users and businesses. This article explores the impact of Ordinals inscriptions on transaction fees and the potential implications for the future.

The Sotheby’s Auction and Mainstream Adoption

Last week, the Ordinals inscriptions frenzy reached new heights when a collection called “BitcoinShrooms” was sold at the prestigious Sotheby’s auction house. The collection featured two Super-Mario-Style mushroom characters and a pixelated avocado, which collectively fetched a staggering $450,000. This sale, five times higher than the highest estimates, demonstrated the growing mainstream appeal of Ordinals inscriptions. With plans for more sales in the pipeline, it is clear that this trend is here to stay.

Network Congestion and Backlogged Transactions

The popularity of Ordinals inscriptions has not come without consequences. According to analysis firm FundStrat, the technology behind these digital assets has caused congestion on various blockchains, including Arbitrum, Avalanche, Cronos, zkSync, The Open Network, and Celestia. However, it is Bitcoin’s network that has been hit the hardest. Greg Cipolaro, head of research at Nydig, highlighted the significant backlog of transactions waiting to be processed, known as the “mempool.” Currently, the transaction queue stretches across an astonishing 372 blocks, equivalent to nearly 2.6 days based on an assumption of 144 blocks per day.

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The Role of Transaction Fees

As the mempool continues to grow, users are finding themselves in a predicament: they must pay higher fees to expedite their transactions. Greg Cipolaro emphasized that fees now play a more substantial role in miner revenue. This additional income could potentially offset the expected impact of next year’s “halving,” where block rewards are set to decrease by 50%. However, this scenario may force users and businesses to reevaluate their plans, as they may have relied on the expectation of low-cost transactions.

Implications and Future Considerations

The rise of Ordinals inscriptions and the subsequent surge in transaction fees raise important questions about the future of cryptocurrency. While the increased revenue for miners is a positive outcome, it also highlights the need for scalability solutions and improvements to blockchain infrastructure. Users and businesses may need to adapt their strategies to account for higher transaction costs, potentially leading to a shift in the cryptocurrency landscape. Furthermore, the impact of Ordinals inscriptions on other blockchains underscores the need for careful consideration and management of digital asset ecosystems.


The popularity of Ordinals inscriptions, or NFTs on Bitcoin, has propelled transaction fees to record highs and caused network congestion. While this trend has brought newfound revenue for miners, it has also forced users and businesses to confront the reality of higher fees and potential disruptions to their plans. As the cryptocurrency industry continues to evolve, it is crucial to address the challenges posed by Ordinals inscriptions and ensure the scalability and efficiency of blockchain networks. Only through careful consideration and innovation can the promise of digital assets be fully realized while maintaining accessibility and affordability for all participants.

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